Geography is a science that studies:

  • the spatial distribution of people and their activities
  • interaction between humans and
  • interaction between humans and the environment in a dynamic context.

Geography is on TV, in the newspaper, all around us every day.  It teaches us the wondrous ways this world behaves.

Learning outcomes 1:    Geographic skills and techniques (Practical competence)
Learners should be competent in:

  • asking questions
  • organising and analysing data
  • making judgements based on data
  • map use and map skills (spatial skills and techniques)
  • manipulating geographical databases (electronically)
  • reporting findings, expressing opinions.

Learning outcomes 2:    Knowledge and understanding (foundational competence)

  • Learners should be able to:
  • demonstrate knowledge
  • have a critical understanding of human and physical processes and the resultant
  • patterns found in various spatial contexts over time.
  • be aware of the interaction between humans and the environment on a local and global scale.

Learning Outcome 3:   Application (reflexive competence)

  • The learner should be able to:
  • make sound judgments
  • take responsible and appropriate action that will contribute to sustainable development of society and the environment.
  • propose solutions and strategies to manage local/continental problems.

Content and Context for the attainment of Assessment standards:
This supports the attainment of the Assessment standards, and enables the learner to progress towards achieving the learning outcomes.

Grade 10

A) Geographical skills and techniques:  Fieldwork: using local maps/photos; recording geographical  information in the local area. G. I. S.
B) Atmosphere: weather and climate: Context – South Africa and the World – Global Warming.
C) The structure and changing land forms of the Earth: Context – The World – Volcanoes, earthquakes, weathering.
D) People and places: population: Context  – The World and Africa
E) People and their organisations: Context  – The World and Africa

Grade 11

A) Geographical skills and techniques:  Geographical information systems.  Importance to businesses today.
B) Water Masses
C) People and their organisations.
D) People and their needs.

Grade 12
A) Geographical skills and techniques:  Geographical information systems.  Importance to businesses today.
B) Climatology, small and large scale.
C) Settlement – rural and urban.
D) People and their needs.  Development – focus on South Africa and Africa.


  • Self assessment
  • Peer assessment
  • Group assessment


Geography provides a number of opportunities for additional education and training.

Career links include amongst others, the following: aviation, cartography, earth sciences, eco-tourism, education and teaching, environmental management, geographical information systems, geology, land